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Optimax Coatings Capabilities

Optimax delivers finished optics faster and with less risk because we own the complete manufacturing process, including optical coating.

Our state-of-the-art cleanroom coating facility produces custom antireflection coatings, beamsplitters, metal mirrors, laser line and broadband dielectric mirrors and filters. Our coatings have been used successfully in some of the most demanding Space, Defense, high power laser (HPL), medical, and semiconductor applications.

Optimax Coating Technologies
  • Reactive Evaporation
  • Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition
  • Ion Beam Sputtering
Optical Coating Capabilities
  • Diameter up to 500mm
  • DUV to Mid- IR applications
  • Antireflection
  • Mirrors
  • Beamsplitters
  • Polarizers
  • Filters

Optimax Tools

Manufacturing Tolerance Chart
Test Plate Library
Preferred Glass List
Aerospace Glass List
Application:

UV/DUV Lithography Coatings

Optimax mirrors, ARs, and filters are used in UV/DUV lithography applications all over the world. Our coated lenses ensure:

  • Highly uniform wavefront and transmission control for high NA systems
  • Low absorption, low total loss surfaces and coatings for DUV applications
  • Mirrors and ARs qualified for greater than 1 billion cycles of KrF illumination without spectral degradation
  • Cleanroom processes and packaging qualified for low particle count and high molecular cleanliness
Application:

Pulsed High Energy Laser Coatings

Thousands of Optimax coated optics are used in the highest energy pulsed lasers in the world. Our coating and cleaning processes have been developed under National Ignition Facility and Omega Laser guidelines to achieve low defect counts, low absorption, and high laser damage thresholds.

Type
Wavelength
Pulse Lengths
Typical Specifications
Optimax Best Performance
HR 1064 nm 10 ns   >40 J/cm2
>125 J/cm2
AR 1064 nm 10 ns >25 J/cm2 >65 J/cm2
*Pulsed testing results are fluence at which 0 defects were observed at 150x magnification after raster scanning with a 1mm beam across 2500 sites at 5-10Hz per LLNL Spec NIF-5008633 MEL01-013-OD protocol
Application:

CW High Power Laser Coatings

Optimax coated optics are being successfully used in some of the highest power CW laser systems in the world. Our processes have been developed to achieve low defect countslow absorption, and high laser damage thresholds.

CW High Power 1070 nm Antireflection (AR) and Dielectic Mirror (HR) Performance
Laser Damage Threshold* >10MW/cm2
AR Coating Absorption** <2 ppm
HR Coating Absorption** <5 ppm
*As tested at Penn State EOC, 17kW laser, 0.5mm spot size, 63.5 mm2 raster area
**Max peak absorption as measured using Photothermal Common-Path Interferometry at Optimax, 2 mm scan length. Measurements verified by Stanford Photothermal Solutions.
Application:

Space Qualified Coatings

Space can be a harsh environment for optical coatings. Optimax has successfully provided antireflection (AR) coatings for a wide range of space applications.  Our coatings have been qualified for many missions, demonstrating:

  • Stable transmission after extended radiation exposure
  • Stable spectral performance in the cold vacuum of Space.
  • Good adhesion and durability after extended humidity and temperature cycling
Engineered Solutions:

Coating Uniformity Correction

For large and steeply curved lenses, an optical coating will be thinner at the edge of the optic unless corrected. For transmitting optics, this non-uniformity can lead to significantly reduced transmission towards the edge of the clear aperture. Optimax has developed a deterministic approach to correct coating uniformity on even the most steeply curved lenses; insuring good spectral performance and high transmission across the entire clear aperture.

Figure 1. A coated 200mm diameter, 150mm convex radius of curvature lens. The left side of the lens shows the variable reflection from uncorrected coating non-uniformity (multilayer is 15% thinner at edge than center). The right side shows a uniformity corrected surface; reflectivity is the same from center to edge.

Engineered Solutions:

Low-Stress Coatings

Although thin, internal stresses of optical coatings can be significant enough to physically bend an optic, changing figure and wavefront. The impact can become extreme as coating thickness, optic aspect ratio, and coating stress increase.

Coating stress is partially a function of optic thermal expansion coefficient, so substrate material is an important factor in understanding the impact of coating stresses. Optimax has the ability to measure and tune coating stress to near neutral levels on a wide range of optical substrates. This is especially important for applications where relatively thick mirror and filter coatings are required with high precision figure and wavefront control.

Figure 1. Change in surface form of a mirror with an 8:1 clear aperture to thickness ratio after deposition of a single-side 6-micron thick multilayer dielectric mirror coating. The Optimax low-stress mirror (LS-HR) can be tuned to minimize coating stress induced deformation.

Engineered Solutions:

Environmentally Sensitive Glass Coatings (OTR)

Many optical glasses are chemically and environmentally sensitive. Lenses fabricated from these glasses can stain over time leading to transmission degradation. The OTR coating was developed after a careful study of coating diffusion and surface chemistry at the optic-coating interface. The OTR coating eliminates optic staining in even the most hot-humid use environments.

Figure 1. Glass windows made from a humidity sensitive glass after storing in a hot-humid environment for 1 month. The window coated with an industry standard AR (left) is visibly stained and has a lower transmission. The window coated with the Optimax OTR coating resists staining and ensures good transmission even in the most hot-humid use environments.

Coating Limits

Thin Film Coating Manufacturing Limits

Coating Capabilities
Attribute
Minimum
Maximum
Diameter 3mm 500mm
Wavelength 193nm 5000nm
Use Environment Vacuum >95% RH
Durability Moderate abrasion Severe abrasion
Measurement 68°, s, p, average polarization
Laser Damage Threshold 1064nm: >30J/cm2@10ns, >1MW/cm2CW
Layers 1 200
* Soft Tolerancing Units **Stitching/CGH dependent

Above are manufacturing limits and tolerances specific to thin film coating. For more detailed information, please contact sales@optimaxsi.com.

Manufacturing Limits for Freeform Surfaces

Attribute
 Tolerancing Limit*
Diameter (mm) +0, -0.010
Center Thickness (mm) ± 0.050
Irregularity – Interferometry
(HeNe fringes)
0.1**
 Irregularity – Profilometry (μm)  ±1.0
 Wedge Lens – ETD (mm)
 TBD
 Surface Roughness (Å RMS)  10
* Soft Tolerancing Units **Stitching/CGH dependent

General Comments on Manufacturing Limits

  • This represents a general list of soft limits and is intended for reference only.
  • As requirements move closer to a min or max shown the more challenging the part will be.
  • Certain combinations may not be possible – Choosing Max Sag and Min Diameter on concave surfaces for example.
  • Interferometric testing of aspheres is extremely case specific. The slower the onset of departure, the more likely interferometric testing is possible.
  • During manufacturing the lens is oversized in diameter. Be aware, forms well behaved within clear aperture may turn exotic or undefined just beyond final diameter.

Manufacturing Limits for Aspheric Surfaces

Based on Form Error Tolerance

Form Error > 2μm Lower Resolution Profilometry (2-D)1
Attribute
Minimum
Maximum
Diameter (mm) 3 250
Local Radius (mm) -8 (Concave)
Sag (mm) 0 502
Departure (mm) 0.01 20
Included Angle (°) 0 120
Form Error 0.5 – 2μm Higher Resolution Profilometry (2-D)1
Attribute
Minimum
Maximum
Diameter (mm)3 3 250
Local Radius (mm) -12 (Concave)
Sag (mm) 0 252
Departure (mm) 0.01 20
Included Angle (°) 0 150
Form Error < 0.5μm Interferometry with Stitching (3-D)
Attribute
Minimum
Maximum
Diameter (mm)3 3 250
Local Radius (mm) -13 (Concave)
Sag (mm) 0 252,4
Departure (mm) 0.002 1
Included Angle (°) 0 120+5
1Typical metrology is Zygo MetroPro plots for interferometry
2For concave surfaces the maximum may be smaller, limited by tool clearance first. Short radii have lower maximums
3Larger diameters can be accommodated using multiscan fusion
4Total sag allowed is a function of diameter, determined by fringe resolution of the interferometer
5Very basic forms (paraboloid, ellipsoid) can have higher included angles

General Comments on Manufacturing Limits

  • This represents a general list of soft limits and is intended for reference only.
  • As requirements move closer to a min or max shown fabrication becomes more difficult.
  • Certain combinations are unattainable, e.g. 3mm convex radius with 100mm length.
  • Certain configurations add significant fixturing costs, e.g. crossed axis cylinders, cylinders/spheres.
  • Interferometric testing of cylinders is somewhat case specific. Aperture coverage is often limited by the range of diffractive nulls available.
  • Length is always the dimension along the plano axis and width is the dimension across the power axis.

Manufacturing Limits for Cylindrical Surfaces Based on Manufacturing Method

Rod or Arbor
Attribute
Minimum
Maximum
Length (mm) 3 5001
Width (mm) Radius dependent 2 < 2x Radius
Cylinder Radius (mm) – Convex Only 2 150
X-Y
Attribute Minimum Maximum
Length (mm) 3 300
Width (mm) 2 300
Cylinder Radius (mm) 10
Concave sag to flat (mm) 0.1002 =Radius
1This is at minimum radius and width. The part-specific minimum will grow in proportion to radius.
2Flat surfaces lead to scratching problems and polisher contact issues. For both practical and economic reasons consider plano here.

General Comments on Manufacturing Limits

    • This represents a general list of soft limits and is intended for reference only.
    • As requirements move closer to a min or max shown, the more challenging the part will be.

Manufacturing Limits for
Prism Surfaces

Attribute
Minimum
Maximum
Diameter (mm) 3 300
Thickness 1 150
Aspect Ratio1 1 502
1Diameter divided by thickness
2This represents highest values obtained. When at maximum other minimums (irregularity) may not be possible. Will be smaller with less well behaved materials.

General Comments on Manufacturing Limits

  • This represents a general list of soft limits and is intended for reference only.
  • As requirements move closer to a min or max shown, the more challenging the part will be.
  • During manufacturing, the lens is over-sized in diameter.

Manufacturing Limits for Spherical Surfaces

Based on Form Error Tolerance

Attribute
Minimum
Maximum
Diameter (mm) 3 400
Radius (mm) ±1 2
Aspect Ratio (Diameter/Center Thickness) <1:1 30:1
Included Angle (°) 0 2103
1Limited by machine envelope
2Metrology dependent. Avoid 3-10 meter radii when possible, choosing to stay plano instead. It will be less expensive too.
3This represents highest values possible. Actual value possible depends on finished and metrology options available plus tolerance range available for a given part.

Technical Resources

Production of high laser induced damage thresholds

Completing our suite of deposition equipment, we are developing a new Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) System with different substrate configurations

Antireflection Coatings for Space Applications

Space can be a harsh environment for optical coatings. Optimax has successfully provided antireflection (AR) coatings for a wide range of space applications. The results of testing done to qualify Optimax AR coatings for space ensure vacuum, temperature, and radiation stability

Designing and Selecting an Optical Cleaning Process

Every optical application requires a “clean” optical surface. However, what defines “clean” is subjective and is based on the needs of the application.  

Optical Systems: Transmissive high-energy laser optics

There are many decisions to make when designing, specifying, manufacturing, and testing optical components for high-energy laser systems — each is a potential failure mechanism that must be understood and controlled

Measurement considerations when specifying optical coatings

Design, specification, and procurement of optical coatings all benefit when the designer has a good understanding of measurement techniques and uncertainties.

Optimax ‐OTR Coatings for Extreme Environmental Resistance

Optimax has developed a novel optical coating (OTR‐AR). OTR coatings have been demonstrated to provide excellent resistance to latent scratching, staining and dimming of chemically sensitive optical glass surfaces in hot humid environments

Optimax completes coating facility expansion

Optimax has completed the third and final phase of a $10 million optical coating facility project that has created more than 50 jobs

Optimax Coatings

Optimax Capabilities

Optimax Capabilities

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